A new Consensus Document from the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) provides practical, evidence-based recommendations on the use of drug testing for identification, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients with or at risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). The document appears in the May/June issue of the Journal of Addiction Medicine, the official journal of ASAM. The journal is published by Wolters Kluwer.
"Drug testing is a valuable tool for supporting patients in addiction treatment, and this comprehensive set of recommendations should prove useful to providers in a variety of addiction treatment settings," comments Margaret Jarvis, MD, DFASAM, Chair of ASAM's Quality Improvement Council. The Consensus Document and supplemental digital content are available on Journal of Addiction Medicine and ASAM websites.
Evidence-Based Recommendations Aim at 'Smarter' Approach to Drug Testing
The Consensus Document provides practical guidance on the use of drug testing across the many clinical settings in which addiction treatment is provided. Based on evidence from more than 100 research studies, the document’s recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary panel, following an established "Appropriateness Method" process that combines scientific evidence with the collective judgment of experts.
The resulting recommendations focus on "when, where and how often it is appropriate to perform drug testing" in clinical addiction medicine. Based on evidence that drug testing aids in monitoring adherence and abstinence in treatment and can improve patient outcomes, drug testing "should be widely used in addiction treatment settings." Drug testing should serve as a therapeutic tool, rather than a punitive one: "Providers should utilize drug testing to explore denial, motivation, and actual substance use behaviors with patients."
Drug testing plays important roles in initial assessment, treatment planning, and monitoring of patients with SUDs, across treatment settings. However, the document emphasizes, "Drug testing should be only one of several methods of detecting substance use or monitoring treatment," including patient self-reports and other indicators.
The Consensus Document addresses a wide range of daily issues encountered in the process of drug testing, including the choice of tests and appropriate response to test results. Urine tests remain by far the most common category of tests, but are also the most prone to tampering. There is growing interest in using other types of samples for drug testing, although more evidence on these tests is needed.
Drug testing should be done at least weekly at the beginning of treatment, and at least monthly in patients in stable recovery; however, individual consideration may be given for less frequent testing if a patient is in stable recovery. The document recommends that testing be performed on a random schedule, when possible.
The document addresses many other elements of testing programs, including documentation and patient confidentiality, practitioner education and expertise, and test facilities and devices. Issues in inpatient and outpatient treatment as well as opioid treatment services are discussed, along with issues related to special populations, including adolescents, pregnant patients, people in recovery, and health and other professionals. The expert panel also makes recommendations for further research to address gaps in each area.
A previous ASAM White Paper made broad suggestions to improve drug testing in clinical practice, emphasizing a "smarter" approach to drug testing—including avoiding some inappropriate and high-cost practices followed in the past. "The current crisis has many people in desperate need of high-quality addiction care, but many, professionals included, have no way of judging the quality of this kind of treatment,” comments Dr. Jarvis. “This document helps to define that high-quality care."
Article: “Appropriate Use of Drug Testing in Clinical Addiction Medicine” (doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000322)
About Journal of Addiction Medicine
The mission of Journal of Addiction Medicine, the official journal of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, is to promote excellence in the practice of addiction medicine and in clinical research as well as to support Addiction Medicine as a mainstream medical specialty. Published six times a year, the Journal is designed for all physicians and other mental health professionals who need to keep up-to-date with the treatment of addiction disorders. Under the guidance of an esteemed Editorial Board, peer-reviewed articles published in the Journal focus on developments in addiction medicine as well as on treatment innovations and ethical, economic, forensic, and social topics.
About The American Society of Addiction Medicine
The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) is a professional society representing over 4,300 physicians, clinicians, and associated professionals in the field of addiction medicine. ASAM is dedicated to increasing access and improving the quality of addiction treatment, educating physicians and the public, supporting research and prevention, and promoting the appropriate role of physicians in the care of patients with addiction. Visit us on the web at www.ASAM.org; follow @ASAMorg on Twitter.
About Wolters Kluwer
Wolters Kluwer N.V. (AEX: WKL) is a global leader in information services and solutions for professionals in the health, tax and accounting, risk and compliance, finance and legal sectors. We help our customers make critical decisions every day by providing expert solutions that combine deep domain knowledge with specialized technology and services.
Wolters Kluwer reported 2016 annual revenues of €4.3 billion. The company, headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands, serves customers in over 180 countries, maintains operations in over 40 countries and employs 19,000 people worldwide.
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